How you can shutdown you mysql instance? We can use SIGTERM, mysqladmin and SIGKILL . These three methods will end up with a dead mysqld but the one you choose depends on the situation and can even result in lost data. On Linux the difference between SIGTERM and SIGKILL is significant and often times misunderstood.
Before processes start to die it is important to understand the relationship between mysqld_safe and mysqld. mysqld_safe is the watchdog script for mysqld. It is responsible for starting mysqld and keeping an eye on it. It does this by waiting for mysqld to exit then checking the return code. On a safe shutdown such as one done by mysqldadmin or a SIGTERM mysqld will return zero. When mysqld_safe sees a zero return code it will also exit. If the return code is anything else then mysqld_safe assumes mysqld crashed and starts a new instance of mysqld. This difference can help explain why mysqld sometimes just won’t go away.
It is important to understand the difference between mysqladmin and sigterm. mysqladmin will create a shutdown thread. Using a TERM signal will also create a shutdown thread. The major difference between the two is that mysqladmin makes a connection to mysql and sends a shutdown packet. This means it can be used from a remote host. It also means that mysqladmin must pass mysql permissions before allowing the shutdown. SIGTERM is delivered through the signal mechanism in linux and must only pass the linux system user rules for delivering a signal. For example if mysqld is running as root then the anil user can’t deliver a signal to it without using sudo command or sudo acess.
SIGTERM is handy for safely shutting down mysqld when the root password is lost or there are too many connections and the reserved super user connection is also taken up. There are several different methods to find the mysqld process and send it a term signal. Here are a few examples where nnnn is the pid of the mysqld process. These also work with SIGKILL. Note that killall defaults to a TERM signal
- kill -TERM nnnn
- killalll mysqld
- kill -TERM `pidof mysqld`
- kill -TERM `cat /var/run/mysqld.pid`
Getting into SIGKILL or kill -KILL is where things get interesting. In Linux SIGKILL isn’t really a signal in that it never actually gets delivered to the process. Since it never gets delivered to the process it can’t be caught or blocked.
SIGKILL means is to remove a process from existence. The process never gets another chance to run to attempt to block the signal. Linux simply cleans it up. What this means for MySQL is that it doesn’t get a chance to perform any shutdown tasks like flushing indexes for myisam tables. To MySQL it is effectively the same as pulling the plug on the server except that the filesystem still has a chance to flush modified data to disk.
SIGKILL should really be a last resort or only used when you know your mysqld is safe to shutdown. There is plenty of discussion on this with respect to making consistent backups. The rules are basically the same. When you take a filesystem snapshot or lvm snapshot the way the snapshot looks is effectively the same as running SIGKILL on mysqld to remove it from existence.